The environment protection business is led by developed countries
and we have great dependence by way of aid and technological
support. However still the innovations in this sector are
concurrent and recent phenomenon. Like in software , we have great
potential for not only developing the technology indigenously, but
also market it worldwide.
The two concept papers enclosed here are for starters.
A plan of action is urgent necessity, as they are bound to be
developed further for sure, if we don't do it.
With this initiative in right perspective and commitment, we can
guide the industry, and contribute significantly to the movement.
Being a technology and concept promoter, most of the time, we will
enjoy doing this with an appropriate arrangement.
Biomedical waste treatment - a technologist's perspective
The Concept Paper- 1.
1.The biomedical waste management has come of age over last two
decades of notifications, amendments, guidelines and
implementation- initiatives of regulatory bodies and enterprises.
2.Now the healthcare establishments follow the principals of
segregation. The treatment facilities are in place in major
hospitals and common BMW treatment facilities are established in
3.But the norms of treatment are not followed, due to apparent
costs of operations being very high. The periodic inspection by
pollution control bodies only legalizes these unethical operations
4.Almost all incinerators have electrical panels for operations
and monitoring operating parameters. They then have to be put on
registers and reports are made. To follow the norms of
temperatures of oxidation viz.850deg.cent. in primary chamber and
1000 deg. cent. in secondary chambers costs money by way of diesel
consumption. Nobody wants to incur that cost in absence of "on the
spot" monitoring and therefore the waste is burned at minimum
temperatures and at minimal cost of fuel. This defeats the purpose
of waste treatment.
5.Only few operators have autoclaves with tamper-proof PLCs and
printers. Running an autoclave for prescribed time cycles and
required temperature and pressure costs money in terms of
electricity. Therefore autoclaves are run for shorter time cycles
to finish the work fast and save electricity. This leaves the
waste as hazardous as it could be.
6. The shredding is rarely done properly and is done after doing
the segregation at this stage. This is for the recovery of best
value of the waste plastic.
7. The money generating factor being the sale of plastics (which
was the old practice), the facility operators focuses on it and do
not bother about following any norms or guidelines of sterlization
To overcome the problem, it is proposed to develop a tamperproof
electronic online system for complete operations and monitoring of
biomedical waste management facilities. This will ensure proper
treatment and monitoring by pollution control boards.
1. System software with all the operational and monitoring
parameters to be linked with every facility operator through
internet with database management and highlighting the significant
points. This is to be installed at MEOF, CPCB, and PCB head
2. Develop a compatible plc/computer based systems for tamperproof
operational and monitoring parameters, which is to be procured by
facility operators under their directive.
3. Integrate the incinerator, sterilizer, processor, shredder and
other facility equipment with this system.
4. Link automatic and on line parameters feeding to central
systems right from waste collection to treatment and disposal.
5. Automatic generation of reports at every level and establish
At ESRF, we are committed to the cause of health and environment
and would like to execute this project for you.
Biomedical waste treatment - a technologist's perspective
The Concept Paper - 2.
1.Waste management is an emerging infrastructure industry. Because
of the aid by international environmental agencies they only
determine the expenditures and technology. This is for their
advantage at our cost, which is irrationally high.
2.There is a campaign worldwide against global warming and
incineration is not a favored waste treatment option. Non burn
technologies are preferred world over and being developed.
3. Autoclaves as prescribed in law leaves sterilization standard
much to be desired – only 4 log 10 and homogeneous penetration of
steam in whole waste. While 6 to 8 log 10 is achievable in
alternative systems like hydroclave.
4. The waste in Hydroclave and other systems like sanitec
microwave does not have a commercial value and have to go to land
fill—which is again not an acceptable option.
5. To make waste reusable it has to be a system of continuous
process for large volumes, sterilization 6 to 8 log 10, and
reusable waste after treatment.
a. The objective is to sterilize to the Biomedical Waste to the
Safe & acceptable norms to render it harmless. Permissible limit-
4 log 10 in Autoclaves, while Achievable limit -8 log 10 in
b. Residue Should be harmless but reusable, If it is not non
reusable, the Basic objectives are defeated. i.e. it can be
segregated to make commercially usable
c. Hazardous nature of waste needs minimum human handling. A
continuous process will be better than a batch process
d. Continuous sterilization process by Steam has to be by mixing
the waste to achieve best sterilization standards. This makes
segregation and Recycling process hazardous then microwave based
e. In continuous microwave sterilization process, we don’t have to
mix the waste to achieve the requisite sterilization standards.
This will make it safe and recyclable waste.
F. It should be a generation ahead then available and should meet
Therefore we should develop a microwave based continuous
sterilization system for Biomedical waste treatment and other
peripheral equipment for waste management.